A complete sequence

Print edition : June 23, 2017

THE Harappan site of 4MSR witnessed a continuous cultural sequence from the Early Harappan to the late phase of the Mature Harappan civilisation. Evidence of this can be found in the gradual development in the seals of these periods.

The excavation in the lower levels of the trenches yielded small seals with concentric circles on both sides or animal motifs on both sides. During the transitional phase from Early to Mature Harappan, the seals were a little bigger and had geometric patterns and each had a knob on the reverse.

Seals of the Mature phase had engravings of animals and the Harappan script, and the knob on the reverse was a well-developed one, according to Sanjay Manjul, director of the excavation at 4MSR. Seals of the late phase of the Mature Harappan had only the Harappan script and a protruding knob.

The excavations at 4MSR unveiled data on climate changes that occurred from circa 4500 BCE to circa 2000 BCE, which was cross-checked at 43GB.

Radiocarbon dating done at the Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences, Lucknow, on rice, barley, charcoal and sediments excavated at 4MSR revealed dates varying from 2200 BCE to 2488 BCE to 4249 BCE.

“At the moment, we can safely say that the site was extant from circa 4000 BCE to 2000 BCE. We are awaiting more dates. Then we can say whether we can go beyond these dates,” Manjul said.

T.S. Subramanian

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